Chemical Sciences Lectures
 /  Chemical Sciences Lectures
  1. CHM101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 1

    Otache Monday Abel

    Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory: Atoms and molecules can exist only in certain energy states. In each energy state, the atom or molecule has a definite energy. When an atom or molecule changes its energy state, it must emit or absorb just enough energy to bring it to the new energy state (the quantum condition). Atoms or molecules emit or absorb radiation (light) as they change their energies. The frequency of the light emitted or absorbed is related to the energy change by a simple equation.

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  2. CHM101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 2

    Otache Monday Abel

    ATOMIC ORBITALS: Atomic orbitals are regions of space where the probability of finding an electron about an atom is highest. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE S-ORBITAL: s-orbitals are spherical in shape, There is one s orbital per n level, L = 0; 1 value of m = 0

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  3. CHM101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 3

    Otache Monday Abel

    PERIODIC TABLE: Atomic radius and ionic radius are two ways to describe the size of an atom. Both concepts follow the same trends in the periodic table.

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  4. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – EXP 1

    Otache Monday Abel

    THEORY: Reactions in a closed system may go to some intermediate state in which both the reactants and products have concentrations that do not change with time. At this stage the amount of the reactants and products remains constant. The equilibrium constant, Kc, relates the concentration of reactants and products. Consider the reaction: aA + bB <-> Cc + dD;

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  5. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – EXP 2

    Otache Monday Abel

    THEORY: Thermochemistry is a branch of thermodynamic that studies the energy change that accompanies physical changes and chemical reaction. Some salt dissolves, releasing heat in the process, while others dissolve while absorbing heat. The heat of solution or enthalpy of solution is defined as the heat generated or absorbed when a certain amount of the solute dissolves in a certain amount of solvent. The heat of solution can denote a negative value because the energy of the system is decreasing due to the released of energy to the surroundings in an exothermic process.

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  6. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – EXP 5

    Otache Monday Abel

    THEORY: A galvanic cell is made up of two complete but separate half cells, connected by a wire. The oxidizing and reducing agents are kept separate so that the transfer of electrons occurs through the wire. The total voltage supplied by such a cell may be measured or calculated from the Nernst Equation.

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  7. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – EXP 6

    Otache Monday Abel

    THEORY: In a potentiometric titration, one makes a graph of the volume of titrant delivered from a burette against the voltage (pH) produced by two electrodes in the solution being titrated. This change in voltage can be used in place of a colour indicator to locate the equivalence point. A PH meter as used in this experiment is essentially an electronic voltmeter. However, through calibration, its output reads directly in PH units instead of volts. The titration is performed, by adding increments of titrant from the burette and reading the PH of the solution after each addition.

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  8. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – EXP 7

    Otache Monday Abel

    THEORY: Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a synthetic organic compound derived from salicylic acid. In the reaction involving the synthesis of aspirin, an excess of acetic anhydride (C4H6O3) is added to a measured mass of salicylic acid (C7H6O3) in the presence of a catalyst, sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The mixture is heated to form the acetylsalicylic acid (C9H8O4) and acetic acid (C2H4O2). After the reaction takes place, water is added to destroy the excess acetic anhydride and cause the product to crystallize. The aspirin is then collected, purified by recrystallization, and its melting temperature measured.

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  9. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – EXP 8

    Otache Monday Abel

    THEORY: PH is the measures the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.To be more exact, pH is the measurement of the hydrogenion concentration, [H+]. The PH value ranges from 0 to 14. Values below 7 PH exhibit acidicproperties. Values above 7 PH exhibit basic properties. PH value at 7 indicates neither acidic nor basicproperties,hence it is called "neutral." PHis defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

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  10. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 1

    Otache Monday Abel

    COURSE OVERVIEW: The content of the first half of the course as described in this manual are to provide: A safe approach to basic experimental procedures such as: titrations, synthesis, purification and crystallization of organic and inorganic compounds. An understanding of the function of volumetric glassware and balances in the correct way and get precise solutions. A platform for careful observations of chemical responses and explain them qualitatively in terms of balanced chemical equations. An understanding of simple chemical kinetics.

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  11. CHM107 – PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 2

    Otache Monday Abel

    RULES FOR LABORATORY SAFETY: Safety in the laboratory is important in order to avoid injuries. There are corrosive substances which can burn the body parts if exposed. Bunsen burner needs to be carefully watched and so on. Also apparatus needs to be managed cautiously. Abiding to the following conventions will assist you stay safe in the laboratory.

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  12. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 1

    Otache Monday Abel

    COLLISION FREQUENCY (Z): We treat the molecules as hard spheres (of diameter d) – like pool balls. For two molecules to collide, their centers must come within a distance d of each other.

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  13. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 2

    Otache Monday Abel

    Mean Free Path: Collision frequency allows for the determination of the mean free path. If a molecule is travelling with a relative speed c-and collides with a frequency z, the time it spends between each collision = 1/z. Therefore, the distance travelled between collision

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  14. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 3

    Otache Monday Abel

    BEHAVIOUR OF REAL GASES: We want to calculate how many molecules collide with the surface per unit time and per unit surface area.

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  15. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 4

    Otache Monday Abel

    ENTROPY AND FREE ENERGY: Spontaneous vs non-spontaneous, Thermodynamics vs kinetics, Entropy = randomness (So), Gibbs free energy (DGo), Thermodynamics of coupled reactions, DGrxn versus DGorxn, Predicting equilibrium constants from DGorxn, STANDARD ENTROPIES (SO): Every substance at a given temperature and in a specific phase has a well-defined Entropy.

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  16. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 5

    Otache Monday Abel

    PHASE EQUILIBRIUM: System: A body of engineering material under investigation. e.g. Ag – Cu system, NiO-MgO system (or even sugar-milk system). Component of a system: Pure metals and or compounds of which an alloy is composed, e.g. Cu and Ag or Fe and Fe3C. They are the solute(s) and solvent. Solubility Limit: The maximum concentration of solute atoms that may dissolve in the Solvent to form a “solid solution” at some temperature.

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