Biological Sciences Lectures
 /  Biological Sciences Lectures
  1. BCH201 – General Biochemistry 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    INTENDED OUTCOME:At the end of this lecture the students should be able: a) Derive the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. b) Do simple calculations based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

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  2. BCH201 – General Biochemistry 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    INTENDED OUTCOME: At the end of this lecture the students should be able: a) Discuss the methods for the isolation of protein of interest. b) State any three techniques for the purification of protein isolates. c) State any three techniques for the identification of the purified protein isolates.

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  3. BCH201 SHORT HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF BIOCHEMISTRY

    AKPOVONA E. AMBROSE

    Introduction: Biochemistry is one course that unfolds it self at the level far beyond the boundaries of visibility and tangibility. although, its reactions are unfelt by our nominal senses, yet they form the basis for the regulation of the macroscopic and microscopic biotic world. It describes the coming together and separation of unit molecules with the concomitant consumption or release of energy currency that drives life processes

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  4. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    STRUCTURAL LIPIDS: They form important components of biomembranes. These biomembranes are bilayers. They are amphipathic in nature.

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  5. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    INTRODUCTION TO LIPIDS: Food nutrients are essential to human existence and these food nutrients are classified into six classes, viz; Carbohydrate, Protein, Fats and oil, Vitamins, Minerals, Water. Interestingly, fats and oils fall under a special class of biomolecules called LIPIDS.

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  6. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    CLASSIFICATION OF LIPIDS: Lipids can be classified based on their function or structure. On the basis of their structure, lipids are classified into; Simple lipids, Compound lipids, Derived lipids. On the basis of their function, lipids are classified into; Storage lipids, Structural lipids, Essential lipids, Special lipids

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  7. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    STORAGE LIPIDS: 1. Fats and oils: Lipids are stored mostly as fats and oils in animals. In plants, they are stored as oils. These fats and oils are usually in the form of triglycerides (triacylglycerols). They are usually found in vegetable oils, dairy products and animal fats. Triacylglycerols are esters of glycerol. Usually three fatty acids are esterified to single glycerol backbone or moiety.

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  8. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 1

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    HYDROGENATION: Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of molecular hydrogen (H2) to another compound or element usually in the presence of catalyst such as palladium, nickel and platinum. In the absence of catalyst, it is carried out at a very high temperature. Hydrogenation is commonly employed to reduced or saturate mainly organic compounds.

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  9. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 2

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    OXIDATION AND RANCIDITY OF FATTY ACIDS: Food deterioration has been linked to lipid oxidation. Generally, meat as well as fats and oils deterioration is caused by the reaction of lipids with molecular oxygen, light, bacterial etc leading to the formation of off flavor and unpleasant taste. The effect of this lipid oxidation is called RANCIDITY. Rancidity begins immediately after the animal is slaughtered and this chemical process continues during frozen storage, though more slowly at lower temperature

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  10. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 3

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF LIPIDS (FATS AND OILS): Several methods have been adopted to assess the quality of fats and oils. This assessment gives an ideal of the freshness and what the oil would be best used for.

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  11. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 4

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    EICOSANOIDS: Eicosanoids are a group of signaling substance derived from 20C compounds arachidonic acid. They consist of the prostaglandins (PG), thromboxanes (TX), leukotrienes (LT) and lipoxins (LX). Prostaglandins and thromboxanes are collectively refered to as Prostanoids. Prostaglandins were originally shown to be synthesized in the prostate gland, thromboxanes from platelets (thrombocytes) and leukotrienes from leukocytes. The lipoxins on the other hand are inflammation resolving eicosanoids synthesized through lipoxygenase interactions (hence the derivation of the name).

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  12. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 5

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    SYNTHESIS OF EICOSANOIDS: Eicosanoids can be produced by all mammalian cells except the erythrocytes. These molecules are extremely potent, able to cause profound physiological effects at very dilute concentrations. Eicosanoids are not stored and they function locally at the site of synthesis, through receptor-mediated G-protein linked signaling pathways.

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  13. BCH204 – Functional Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    METABOLISM OF LIPIDS: Metabolism is a term used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism is divided into two major parts. These are catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism involves the breakdown of biomolecules to obtain energy.

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  14. BCH204 – Functional Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    LIPOPROTEINS IN LIPID TRANSPORT: Lipids are hydrophobic in nature. There is a need for transport agents to carry lipids in aqueous environments. This makes lipoproteins super important. Oops! What exactly are lipoproteins? Lipoproteins or lipoprotein complexes are transport agents that carry lipids in the bloodstream. Interestingly, only a minute portion of lipids is detectable in blood. The protein component of lipoprotein is synthesized in the liver and intestinal mucosal.

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  15. BCH204 – Functional Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    STORAGE AND METABOLISM OF ENERGY STORES IN ADIPOCYTES: Do you know that there are interesting cells in the body that store excess lipids in the body? These cells are called adipocytes. They constitute approximately one-half of the cells in the adipose tissue with the remaining cells being blood and endothelial cells, adipose precursor cells of varying degrees of differentiation and fibroblasts.

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  16. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 1

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    INTRODUCTION: In humans, the degradation (digestion) of ingested proteins to their constituent amino acids occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Digestion is the chemical breakdown of large food molecules (protein) into smaller molecules (amino acids) that can be used by cells. The breakdown occurs when certain specific enzymes are mixed with the food. Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. No digestion of protein takes place in the mouth, it begins in the stomach. Acid, alkaline, heat, alcohol, and agitation can disrupt the chemical forces that stabilize proteins and can cause them to lose their shape (denature). Denaturing of proteins happens during food preparation (cooking, whipping, adding acids) or digestion (in the stomach with hydrochloric acid).

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  17. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 2

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    NITROGEN BALANCE AND CELLULAR STRATEGIES OF DEAMINATION: Nitrogen balance is defined as the difference between the nitrogen intake and the nitrogen output. Intake refers to the nitrogen of the food and output means the discharge of nitrogen as sweat, milk, vomiting, loss of hair, faeces and menstrual fluid. Nitrogen equilibrium occurs when nitrogen intake equals nitrogen output. Positive nitrogen balance exists when intake exceeds output. This condition occurs whenever new tissue is synthesized such as during growth of the young and in pregnancy. Insulin and growth hormone also influence positive nitrogen balance.

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  18. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 3

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    CELLULAR STRATEGIES OF DEAMINATION: Transaminases catalyze the transfer of an α-amino group from an α-amino acid to an α-keto acid. These enzymes, also called aminotransferases, generally channel α-amino groups from a variety of amino acids to α-keto-glutarate for conversion into NH+4. Aspartate and Alanine aminotransferase are one of the most important of these transferases because they are used as markers of liver injury when found in higher amount in the serum. Aspartate aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of aspartate to α-ketoglutarate. Alanine aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of alanine to α- ketoglutarate.

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  19. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 4

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    FATE OF CARBON SKELETON AND ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS CATABOLISM: Once amino acids are deaminated, the carbon skeletons of the twenty amino acids undergo oxidation in the cell to compounds that can enter the TCA cycle for oxidation to carbon (iv) oxide and water. The carbon skeletons of the diverse set of 20 DNA coded amino acids are channeled into only seven (7) molecules: succinyl CoA, fumarate, oxaloacetate, α-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, and acetoacetyl CoA. The reactions of these pathways require several cofactors, including tetrahydrofolate and Sadenosylmethionine (involved in one-carbon transfer reactions) and tetrahydrobiopterin ( that participates in the oxidation of phenylalanine by phenylalanine hydroxylase). The carbon skeletons of amino acids are transferred into the citric acid cycle through five (5) metabolic intermediates, these include succinyl-CoA, fumarate, oxaloacetate, acetyl-CoA, and α-ketoglutarate.

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  20. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 5

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    Glutamine Transport Ammonia in the Blood Stream: In the body high levels of ammonia can be toxic. In the brain, metabolism of nucleotides produces ammonia (NH3) which can be converted to glutamine by the action of glutamine synthetase. This reaction requires ATP. The first step for this reaction involves glutamate and ATP which react to form ƴ-glutamyl phosphate intermediate and ADP. The ƴ-glutamyl phosphate further reacts with ammonia to produce glutamine, which is a nontoxic form of ammonia (NH3) and inorganic phosphate. Glutamine concentration in the blood is higher than other amino acids because it transports ammonia and also serves as a source of amino groups in a variety of biosynthetic reactions. The NH3 from extra hepatic tissues is transported in the blood to the liver by means of glutamine. In the liver mitochondrion, the ammonia is released by glutaminase from glutamine and disposed of by urea synthesis.

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  21. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    ELECTROPHORESIS: The term electrophoresis is coined from two root words ‘electro’ meaning electricity or flow of current and ‘phoresis’ means moving through. Therefore Electrophoresis can be defined as the separation of the components of a substance as it moves through a support medium under the influence of an electric field.

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  22. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    GEL ELECTROPHORESIS: Gel electrophoresis is a top choice, when analytes of large molecular size are to be identified and quantified. It is an essential technique in the isolation and purification of proteins. Two major types of gel are used commonly. They are agarose and polyacrylamide gels.

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  23. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    CHROMATOGRAPHY: Chromatographic techniques form a group of important analytical techniques used by researchers in biochemistry. Chromatography is derived from two root words ‘chrome’ which means colour and ‘graphy’ which means a field of study. Therefore, chromatography literally means a field of study that deals with the analysis of mostly coloured analytes.

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  24. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 4

    Alegun Olaniyi

    PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY: This is a simulation of paper electrophoresis. The support medium or stationary phase is a paper e.g. Whatman No. 1 and No. 3 filter paper strips, pure cellulose paper, modified cellulose paper like DEAE cellulose, CM cellulose and resin impregnated papers, amberlite, etc. It is a qualitative technique.

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  25. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 5

    Alegun Olaniyi

    SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY: This is a simulation of gel electrophoresis, where the support medium is a gel. In size exclusion chromatography, the support medium or stationary phase is a gel. Hydrophilic cross linked gels are used. Examples include acrylamide, agarose and dextran. Sephadex (dextran) is widely used by researchers.

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  26. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 6

    Alegun Olaniyi

    AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: Affinity chromatography is a replica of ion exchange chromatography. In this case, the column is packed with materials that have high affinity for the proteins to be separated. These materials could be co-enzymes (e.g. NAD to purify certain enzymes) or antibodies (i.e. used to purify proteins that act as antigens to these antibodies).

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  27. BCH305 Determination of the Amount of ATP Derived from the Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    AKPOVONA E. AMBROSE

    Introduction: The complete oxidation of fatty acid yields carbon (iv) oxide and water with the concomitant release of energy in molecular form of ATP. Long chain saturated fatty acids are degraded in a repetitious process (-oxidation) that yields two-carbon units called acetyl-CoA which are fed into the TCA cycle.

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  28. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: The mammalian system has been developed in such a way that special signal molecules are generated at one end of the body and they act at another end. This is a stimulation of the telephone transmission. Sound is generated at one end (sender) and received at another end (recipient). Beautifully, certain chemical substances called hormones are released from specific glands (i.e. sender) and act on target cells in another location (i.e. recipient).

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  29. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    cAMP DEPENDENT HORMONES: These hormones bind with cell surface receptors. The cell surface receptors are mainly G-protein coupled receptors. They are coupled to an intracellular protein called Adenylate cyclase (AC). G-protein is a trimetric protein that serves to couple the cell surface receptors to AC. The monomeric units of G-protein are G-alpha, G-beta and G-gamma subunits. The alpha subunit possesses a catalytic property, which on activation, converts GTP to GDP and Pi. Activation results in the ß-ɤ subunits cleaving from α- subunit.

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  30. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    TYROSINE KINASE DEPENDENT HORMONES: This is another unique mechanism adopted by certain hormones like Insulin, Somatostatin, EGF, FGF, IGF, etc. Insulin is usually a major case study, when tyrosine kinase dependent hormone is been discussed. The insulin receptor is a transmembrane receptor. It possesses two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. Insulin usually binds to the alpha subunits.

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  31. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 4

    Alegun Olaniyi

    AMINE HORMONES: Amine hormones or amino acid derived hormones are hormones that are derived from amino acids. They include thyroid hormones, catecholamines, serotonin and melatonin and histamine.

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  32. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 1

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    PHYTOCHEMISTRY: World Health Organization defines medicinal plant as any plant in which one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes, or which are precursors for chemopharmaceutical semi synthesis. Such plants will have one or more of its parts including leaves, roots, rhizomes, stems, barks, flowers, fruits, grains or seeds, employed in the control or treatment of a disease condition and therefore contains chemical components that are medically active. These bioactive compounds which are secondary metabolites and are non nutritional are often referred to as phytochemicals (‘phyto‐‘ from Greek ‐ phyto meaning ‘plant’).

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  33. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 2

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    FLAVONOIDS: Flavonoids are low molecular weight polyphenolic secondary metabolites that are produced by plants. There are over 10,000 structural variants of Flavonoids. They are synthesized by the polypropanoid pathway with phenylalanine as startup molecule. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). A typical example is given below.

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  34. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 3

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    BIOSYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOID PIGMENTS: Carotenoids are example of secondary metabolites synthesized by plants. They are integral components of higher plant photosystems, and their composition in photosynthetic plant tissues (lutein, β-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, in order of abundance) has been remarkably conserved throughout evolution. They are the second most abundant naturally occurring pigments on earth, with more than 750 members. Carotenoids range from colorless to yellow, orange, and red, with variations reflected in many fruits, flowers, and vegetables, which contribute to their economic value as well.

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  35. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 4

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    UNUSUAL AMINO ACIDS IN PLANTS: Twenty amino acids are found universally distributed as protein constituents in all living organisms. These 20 amino acids are encoded by the genetic code and are incorporated into protein during translation. In other words, they are required for protein synthesis and they are considered typical components of protein. In addition to these 20, a few others occur frequently as metabolic intermediate, while others are synthesized but are not incorporated into protein.

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  36. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 5

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    NUCLEOTIDE STRUCTURE: Nucleic acids which are DNA and RNA are assembled from nucleotides. Nucleotides consist of three components: a five-carbon sugar (pentose), a nitrogenous base and phosphate. Nucleoside is a nucleotide without a phosphate group.

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  37. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 1

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PLANT KINGDOM Thallophytes are a polyphyletic group (i.e. a group of organisms descended from more than one ancestors) of non-mobile organisms traditionally described as “thalloid plants”, “relatively simple plants” or “lower plants”. It is often regarded as a former division of the plant kingdom containing relatively simple plants, i.e. those with no leaves, stems, or roots. Examples of thallophytes are algae, bacteria, fungi, and lichens.

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  38. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 2

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    FUNGI Fungi can be single celled or very complex multicellular eukaryotic organisms. They are found in just about any habitat but most live on the land, mainly in soil or on plant material rather than in sea or fresh water. Examples include mushrooms, molds, rhizopus and yeasts.

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  39. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 3

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    BRYOPHYTA (Liverworts and Mosses) Bryophytes are non-vascular seedless plants that include mosses, liverworts and hornworts. They are thought to be the first true plants to have evolved millions of years ago. They have no vascular tissue or wood to give them structural support, nor do they have large leaves or flowers or cones. However, bryophytes still have an ecological significance. They play important roles in minimizing erosion near streams, water and nutrient cycling in tropical forests.

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  40. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 4

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants. Their reproductive structures are flowers in which the ovules are enclosed in an ovary. Angiosperms are found in almost every habitat from forests and grasslands to sea margins and deserts. Angiosperms display a huge variety of life forms including trees, herbs, submerged aquatics, bulbs and epiphytes.

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  41. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 5

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    GERMINATION Germination is the process by which the embryo wakes up from the state of dormancy and takes to active life. OR Germination is the process whereby seeds, spores or vegetative parts of plants develop into new plants.

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  42. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 6

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PLANT ORGANS: ROOTS, STEMS & LEAVES Plants have specialized organs that help them survive and reproduce in a great diversity of habitats. Major organs of most plants include roots, stems, and leaves.

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  43. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 7

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    RESPIRATION Respiration may be defined as the process whereby glucose is broken down to release energy. OR Respiration is the chemical oxidation of food substances to release carbon dioxide, water and energy (ATP).

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  44. BIO001 – Plant Biology – Lecture 8

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    NUTRITION Nutrition is the process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repair. OR Nutrition is the process of taking nutrients from the food we eat.

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  45. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    INTRODUCTION: An animal is either a vertebrate or an Invertebrate. This categorization of animals is based on the presence or absence of the vertebral column, usually referred to as BACKBONE or spine in highly evolved animals. The animals which possess vertebral column are called VETEBRATES. Conversely, those animals, which do not possess the vertebral column are called INVERTEBRATES.

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  46. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 2

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM ANNELIDA: Annelids was derived from Greek word “annelus” meaning little rings. Annelids are segmented worms (i.e. the building of a body from similar segemnts). The word was first used by Lamarck for higher segmented worms. Examples includes Earthworm, ragworm, leeches, clamworms etc. Two-thirds of all annelids (Phylum Annelida) live in the sea (about 8000 species) and most of the rest (about 3100) are earthworms.

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  47. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 3

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM ARTHROPODA: Arthropoda is from a Greek word (Arthron, joint + podes feet). The Phylum Arthropoda is currently the largest and most species diverse group of the animal Kingdom surpassing in the number of species of all the other phyla combined. It contains over 700,000 species. The animals belonging to this Phylum are found all over the globe at altitudes of over 6,500 meters to depths of over 6,000 meters below sea level.

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  48. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 4

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM COELENTERATA (CNIDERIA): The coelenterates include more than 9000 living species. They are all aquatic, mostly marine but also with a few fresh water forms. They are often found abundantly in warm temperature or subtropical waters. These animals are carnivores, they actively do not move from place to place, rather they lie in wait and capture their prey (e.g. fishes, crustaceans) with the tentacles that ring their mouth. Examples include jelly fishes, sea anemones, corals, hydroids etc.

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  49. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 5

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA: The Phylum includes some 6000 species. This group includes star fishes, sea urchins, sea-lilies and others, all of which live in the sea. Some of the Echinoderms crawl slowly in the shallow waters along the shore or lie partially concealed in the holes of rocks while other like sea-lilies are found attached deep down at the bottom.

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  50. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 6

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM MOLLUSCA: The word Mollusc refers to soft body. There are at least 110,000 named species. They are the second largest phylum except for the arthropods. Mollusks are wide spread and often abundant in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. It is a very diverse group which includes slow moving snails and slugs, relatively sedentary bivalves such as clams, and highly active cephalopods such as squids, Octopus etc. It ranges from almost microscopic organisms to giant squid.

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  51. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 7

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: Characteristic Features of the Phylum Platyhelminthes. They are bilaterally symmetrical, Their body are dorsiventrally flattened; known as flatworms, Triploblastic animals – made up of three body layers, They lack body cavity hence called Acoelomate, They have complete reproductive organs, Digestive system is absent in some; and when present has only the mouth but no anus, Nervous system are ladder-like, with simple sense organs, They have no respiratory, circulatory or skeletal system, They have a proto-nephridial type of excretory system.

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  52. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 8

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM PROTOZOA: Protozoa refers to single-celled eukaryotic organisms, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris. The name protozoa means “first animals” and has been derived from two Greek words, PROTOS, meaning first and ZOON, meaning animal. They are looked upon as the most primitive form of life, appearing first in the evolutionary history. They range in size from 1 to 106 micrometers.

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  53. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 1

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM MONERA They are single celled, motile or non-motile microscopic organisms with no definite nucleus. Examples includes Bacteria, Blue-green algae, Actinomycetes.

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  54. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 2

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two identical daughter cells. Binary fission begins when the DNA of the bacterium divides into two (replicates). The bacterial cell then elongates and splits into two daughter cells each with identical DNA to the parent cell.

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  55. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 3

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM FUNGI They are non-motile organisms with thread-like structures or hyphae. Some are plant- like but cannot carry out photosynthesis due to absence of chlorophyll and they obtain food through the surface of living or non-living organism by absorption. They reproduce asexually or sexually. Examples includes: moulds, mushrooms, yeasts etc.

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  56. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 4

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM PROTISTA They are single celled, motile or non-motile organisms that are much larger than the monerans. Also, they possess a complex cell structure with a definite nucleus. Examples include, Chlamydomonas, Amoeba.

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  57. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 5

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM PLANTAE They are non-motile multicellular organisms that usually contain chlorophyll which enables them make their own food by photosynthesis. Plants have indeterminate growth. Examples includes: Mosses, Ferns, Pines, Seed Plants (yam, bean, etc.).

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  58. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 6

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA Bryophytes are regarded as primitive land plants that have colonized the terrestrial habitats, although still dependent on water for completion of their life cycles. They produce motile male gametes which require a thin film of water for their motility to reach the non-motile female gamete to accomplish fertilization.

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  59. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 7

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PHYLUM TRACHEOPHYTA The Tracheophytes are known as vascular plants because they have vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) through which water and nutrients are transported. The division includes the subdivisions; Pteridophyta (spore-bearing vascular plants) and Spermatophyta (seed-bearing plants).

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  60. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 8

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperms can be defined as vascular plants with seeds, fruit, and flowers for reproduction. The angiosperms are also known as flowering plants. They occupy every habitat from forests and grassland,to sea margins and deserts. Angiosperms display a huge variety of life forms including trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, bulbs, epiphytes (i.e living on other plants);

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  61. BIO202 – INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY – LECTURE 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    INTRODUCTION: ECOLOGY AT COMMUNITY LEVEL A community is an assemblage of populations of different species of organisms occupying the same habitat, e.g. community of plants and animals in a rainforest. A population is the unit of natural selection and evolution. The variety of a community is measured as species diversity. How large a population is and how fast it is growing are often used as measures of its health. The population of species in a community interacts with each other in many ways, the most prevalent of which are predation, parasitism and competition.

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  62. BIO204 – Cell Division – Lecture 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    CELL DIVISION PROCESSES IN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS: All species of organisms’ bacteria, plants in the forest grow and reproduce. From the smallest creatures to the largest, all species produce offspring identical to themselves and pass on the hereditary information that makes them what they are.

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  63. BIO204 – CELL GROWTH

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    CELL Growth: The rates at which materials move through the cell membrane depend on the cell’s surface area and the total area of its cell membrane. However, the rate at which food and oxygen are used up and formation of waste products depends on the cell’s volume. As a cell grows, its internal volume increases faster than its surface area. That is, as a cell becomes bigger, its ratio of surface area to volume decreases. Before a cell gets too large, it divides, forming two “daughter” cells. Cell division is the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.

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  64. BIO204 – Mitosis

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    Mitosis: In eukaryotic cells, or cells with a nucleus, the stages of the cell cycle are divided into two major phases: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase. During interphase, the cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA. During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell separates its DNA into two sets and divides its cytoplasm, forming two new cells.

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  65. BIO204 – STAGES OF CELL CYCLE (MITOSIS)

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    STAGES OF CELL CYCLE (MITOSIS): During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell divides its copied DNA and cytoplasm to make two new cells. M phase involves two distinct division-related processes: mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the mother cell) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters) that are genetically identical or copies of itself. In the context of the cell cycle, mitosis is the part of the division process in which the DNA of the cell's nucleus is split into two equal sets of chromosomes.

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  66. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 1

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Microscopy: Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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  67. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 2

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Biological Drawings: Scientific drawings enable you to look at structures and details that might have gone unnoticed. Drawings are especially useful in helping you to understand macro and microscopic features of plants and animals. Biological drawings enables proper recording, organizing, and displays data using an appropriate format Which Includes labelled diagrams, graphs, multimedia etc.

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  68. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 3

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Preparation Of Microscopic Slide: Slides making is an important part of many areas of biological, medical, veterinary and forensic sciences and often times it will be required to prepare different kinds of slides. Specimens may be smears of fluids, thin sections or whole mounts of all or part of an organ or organisms. In all cases the material is mounted on a glass slide prior to its examination.

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  69. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 4

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Collection And Preservation Of Biological Specimens: A biological specimen also known as a biospecimen is an individual or part of an organisim used as an example of its species or type for scientific study or display. A specimen generally refers to a sample of something or quantity which is intended to be similar to and represent an amount of that thing.

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  70. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 5

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Preservation Procedures: Coelenterates are difficult to preserve, Scyphozoa, Siphonophora and Ctenophora are often singularly beautiful in form and colour. The collector must be prepared for work in the field, with note-book and colour sketches. Afterwards, preservation is done in 70% alcohol or 5% formalin, usually a poor best! Smaller hydrozoans such as Obelia and Sertularia are easier to deal with, while the less well protected Hydra can be quickly fixed in Bouin's, warm, not hot.

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  71. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 6

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Herbarium Techniques: The collection of plants began in the 16th century. Later, J.P. Tourefort used the term herbarium for plants. So a herbarium is basically a storehouse of botanical specimens, which are arranged in the sequence of an accepted classification system and available for reference or other scientific study.

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  72. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lecture 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    Laboratory Safety Rules and Regulations: Laboratory rules and regulations are the general and basic guidelines or code of conduct for safe practices which will guide your safe stay in the laboratory. These safety regulations are intended to prevent or reduce to the barest minimum the chance of an accident and they are compulsory for every person working in the lab.

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  73. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lecture 2

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    Microscopy: Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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  74. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 1

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Introduction Seedless plants are simply plants that do not bear or produce seeds. Examples of seedless plants include ferns, horsetails, mosses, and liverworts. These seedless plants may be vascular or non-vascular. Seedless vascular plants are plants that have waxy cuticles, stomata and vascular tissues, but do not produce flowers or seeds.

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  75. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 2

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Algal Phylogeny Algae exhibit an astonishing diversity of form and function. The various groups of algae derive from the merger of previously heterotrophic eukaryotic cells with autotrophic cells through the process of endosymbiosis (a type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism).

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  76. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 3

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Eukaryotic Algae They are algae that possess membrane-bound nucleus and organelles such as, mitochondria, chloroplasts and so on. The respective divisions of eukaryotic algae are discussed.

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  77. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 4

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Reproduction In Algae Reproduction in algae can be vegetative, asexual, or sexual. Vegetative Reproduction: In this type, any vegetative part of the thallus develops into new individual. It does not involve any spore formation and there is no alternation of generations. It is the most common method of reproduction in algae.

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  78. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 5

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Importance Of Algae Role as Primary Producers: Because of their photosynthetic abilities the algae are the primary producers of the aquatic environments. They provide food and energy to the animal life, produce oxygen and take up carbon dioxide produced during respiration which is injurious for living organisms especially fishes.

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  79. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 6

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Fungi The branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi is called mycology. Unlike plants, fungi lack the photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll) and depend on others for food. They play a major role in decomposing dead organisms and cleaning the environment, to make a sustainable place for other living entities.

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  80. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 7

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Economic Importance Of Fungi Fungi have both positive and negative roles in our daily life. So they are our friends as well as foes (enemy).

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  81. CHM210 – AMINO ACIDS

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    INTRODUCTION: We have more than 300 amino acids present in various animals, plants, and microbial systems, but only 20 of them are coded by DNA to appear in proteins. Cells produce proteins with strikingly different properties and activities by joining the same 20 amino acids in many different combinations and sequences. This indicates that the properties of proteins are determined by the physical and chemical properties of their monomer units, the amino acids.

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  82. CHM210 – PROTEINS

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    PROTEINS: Proteins are the main components of living organisms. They are most important constituent of cell membranes and cytoplasm. Muscle and blood plasma also contain certain specific proteins. Foods that are reached in proteins are essential for living organism, because this organic compound is the most important biological molecules in maintenance and buildup of the structure of body, .Proteins provide as much energy as carbohydrate during its metabolism. Many of the body proteins perform many metabolic reactions constantly taking place in the body. Proteins are the compounds in which genetic information is expressed. Muscle, the lense protein, antibodies, transporters, antibiotics, hormones and a myriad of other substances having distinct biological activities are derivatives of proteins.

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  83. General Practical Biology 1 & 2

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Investigative Biology: Biology, the study of life is in complete without investigation and as a branch of science, Biologists employs scientific method to inquire so as to ascertain facts. The scientific method is a process of acquiring and verifying information through experimentation; simply put it is a process in which knowledge is achieved.

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  84. General Practical Biology 1 & 2

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Biology Orientation: Biology is the study of life, it is therefore the Biologist business to understand how living things stay alive until they have reproduced themselves. The purpose of teaching biology is not merely to accustom the learner with biological terms, facts, concepts and principles but also to prepare the learner to understand these concepts by doing calisthenics relating to them.

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  85. MCB201 – General Microbiology

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie

    Introduction Safety in the Laboratory is aimed at protecting the experimenter and also protecting the sample from contamination that may give false results or infections in the laboratory and its environment.

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  86. STA201 – Statistics for Biological Sciences Lecture 1-3

    EBERU K.U. Friday

    Introduction: Most people think of statistics as the study of the numerical features of a subject/population. It means the same to statisticians, but also emphasizes the methods of collecting data, summarizing and presenting data, and drawing inferences from data. We all see on TV how political pundits justify opposing points of view by presenting statistics from respectable sources. How could something be a science when it justifies two opposing points of view? The answer is that statistics has a scientific basis but it can be misrepresented in use.

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  87. STA201 – Statistics for Biological Sciences Lecture 4-6

    EBERU K.U. Friday

    Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Dispersion: A measure of central tendency represents an "average value." Mean, median, mode (if you already know these) are measures of central tendency. A measure of dispersion is a measure of how widely the data is scattered around.

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Agbarha – Otor
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Delta State
Nigeria

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