Biological Sciences Articles
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  1. A Comparative Study on the Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Leaf Extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum and Irvingia gabonensis

    Osebhahiemen Ojemekele, Francis Irabor, Osamudiamen Ebohon, Ehimwenma S. Omoregie

    ABSTRACT Chrysophyllum albidum and Irvingia gabonensis have been reported to possess several medicinal values. Most studies on these plants have focused on the fruits rather than the leaves. The present study therefore, evaluated the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol leaf extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum and Irvingia gabonensis. Photochemical screening was carried on the plant samples using established protocols.The results of the phytochemical screening of both extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and tannins. Terpenoids and cardiac glycosides were below detectable levels in both extracts

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  2. A novel pig feed formulation containing Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava peels and its effect on growth and selected biochemical parameters of pigs

    Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro et. al.

    Abstract This study investigated the effects of Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel feed (CPFG) on the body weight gain and some selected biochemical parameters of pigs. Cassava peels treated with biomass of A. niger CSA35 for a period of three weeks to initiate enzymatic digestion of peels were dried, ground and used in varying proportions to formulate pig rations in combination with other feed ingredients.

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  3. An impact assessment of the cassava enterprise development project

    Prof. Dicta Ogisi et. al.

    Introduction Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world with the crop being widely cultivated over many parts of the country, where it plays a vital role in the food security of the rural economy. It provides a livelihood for over 30 million farmers and countless processors and traders all over the country. The crop performs five main roles: as a rural food staple, a famine reserve crop, a cash crop for urban consumption, an industrial raw material, and an earner of foreign exchange.

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  4. Anti- tuberculosis activities of medicinal plants used in the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV patients in Nigeria

    Anochie, P. I. et. al.

    Abstract Local herbalists in Nigeria claimed that extracts of certain parts, that is, stem and seeds obtained from Crinum glaucum,Treculia africana, Erythrina mildbaedi, Ficus thonningii and Xylopis aethiopica are used to treat tuberculosis patients. We conducted a laboratory-based study of this claim scientifically using the procedures employed by the local herbalists. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain used in this study was obtained locally and characterized based on cultural and biochemical tests on isolates of bacteriologically proven tuberculosis positive patients.

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  5. Bayes Approach to the Estimation of Technical Efficiency and Returns to Scale in Agriculture: A Case of Nigeria

    O’raye Dicta Ogisi and Toritseju Begho

    ABSTRACT Most studies in Nigeria have focused on the classical approach to estimating technical efficiency. In this paper, we examine technical efficiency of small farms by estimating a stochastic production frontier model using the Bayesian methodology. The model is applied to farm household data from Nigeria.

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  6. Biotechnological Application of Cassava-Degrading Fungal (CDF) Amylase in Broiler Feed Formulation

    Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro et. al.

    ABSTRACT In this study, an attempt was made to substitute maize (Zea mays L.) content of broiler starter feed with ground cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels enzymatically improved with amylase-producing fungi with a view to having a cost-effective yet nutritious and health-friendly feed.

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  7. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis: An update

    Anochie, P. I. et. al.

    Abstract This review examines the chemotherapy of tuberculosis (TB) in humans which will help in the understanding and treatment of the disease. Tuberculosis is spread primarily by inhalation of aerosolized infectious droplet nuclei of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) from patients with active pulmonary TB. The most common manifestation of TB in humans is pulmonary disease, but other organs are involved. TB is treated with a combination of anti-tubercular medications given simultaneously such as isoniazide, refampicin, pyrizinamide and ethambutol. The last new drug for treating MTb infections was rifampicin, introduced in 1972.

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  8. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF HIV/AIDS INFECTION USING ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS IN A NIGERIAN ENDEMIC SETTING

    Anochie, P.I et. al.

    Abstract Current HIV/AIDS treatment strategies aim at maximal suppression of virus load levels (the number of free virus particles in the blood plasma) over long periods. Aside from inducing strong side effects, the long term effectiveness of HAART is also limited by the evolution of drug-resistant variants. Even in patients with viral load levels suppressed below detectable limits (50 copies/ml), ongoing viral replication can be found in a variety of tissues and cell types.

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  9. COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSIS OF LARVAE AND OVA OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES AND TREMATODES IN A CLINICAL LABORATORY

    Anochie, P. I, Okoihue, A

    Abstract This review examines the comparative diagnosis of larvae and ova of gastrointestinal nematodes and trematodes in a clinical laboratory. No procedure used for examining specimens is 100% effective- that is, the procedures will not always recover all the species present and, if a particular species is present in only very low numbers, they may fail to demonstrate them when used on a single specimen.

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  10. Description and evaluation of mycobacterium tuberculosis diagnosis

    Anochie, Philip Ifesinachi

    Abstract Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and initiating optimal treatment would not only enable a cure of an individual patient but will also curb the transmission of infection and disease to others in the community. Of the several distinct components of TB control programmes, case-finding remains the cornerstone for effective control.

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  11. Effect of Preservation on Two Different Varieties of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Bitter) Leaves

    Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro et. al.

    Abstract Vernonia amygdalina Del. is one of the leafy vegetables that can be used in an attempt to alleviate the problem of micronutrient malnutrition, prominent in tropical Africa. In order to ensure avail- ability in non-growing areas or seasons, the vegetable needs to be preserved. Processing and pre- servation methods influence the nutrient content of vegetables.

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  12. Evaluation of public awareness and attitude to pulmonary tuberculosis in a Nigerian rural community

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie, et. al.

    Abstract Introduction Community based interventions have long been linked to tuberculosis control efforts. Effectively treated and cured patients living within their home communities are often the best advocates and may become the drivers of social mobilization to support control of tuberculosis.

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  13. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Antiretroviral Drugs used in the Clinical Management of HIV/ AIDS Infection

    Anochie P. I. et. al.

    Abstract The protease inhibitors are potent antiretroviral drugs because the protease activity is absolutely essential for production of infectious viruses. The newest class of drugs is the fusion inhibitors that blocks virus entry into cells. Persistent virus production is facilitated further by sub-inhibitory drug levels in infected cells or by host immune failure.

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  14. Growth of Raphia farinifera and Elaeis guineensis Wine Yeast on Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Poultry Manure Media

    Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro et. al.

    Abstract The aim of this research was to determine the suitability of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and poultry manure (locally available resources) as substrates for the production of raffia and palm wine yeasts. Yeast growth was estimated as a measure of their medium’s optical density at 600 nm (OD 600 nm ) after 36 h of growth.

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  15. INVESTIGATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF Terminalia macroptera STEM BARK VIA PLATELET-TO-LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AMONG OTHER BLOOD PARAMETERS IN Wistar RATS
    A. E. Akpovona and I. O. Onoagbe

    Abstract: This study investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Terminalia macroptera stem bark (TMSB) in Wistar rats via white blood cell count and its differentials; erythrocytic parameters (EP) [red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration]; platelet count and plateletto-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). Daily oral administration of extracts at low (50 and 200 mg/kg), mid (400 and 600 mg/kg) and high doses (1000 and 1200 mg/kg) were delivered to four female rats in six groups respectively for 28 days while control group received distilled water.

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  16. Model Alternative Strategies for Tuberculosis and Human Immune Deficiency Virus Case-Finding in Hard-to-Reach Populations in Rural Eastern Nigeria

    P. I. Anochie et. al.

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Since roughly half of all cases of active tuberculosis (TB) and Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection currently go undetected, there is a compelling need to pursue research aimed at improving case-finding, particularly among hard-to-reach populations.

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  17. Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants for Antituberculosis Therapy

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie

    ABSTRACT This review examines natural products from medicinal plants from Africa as a source of anti- tuberculosis agents. A good number of plant secondary metabolites are reported to have antitubercular activity comparable to the existing antitubercular drugs or sometimes even better. Information regarding the chemistry and pharmacology of plants leads to insight into their structure–activity relationship and potency.

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  18. Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants for Antituberculosis Therapy

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie

    ABSTRACT This review examines natural products from medicinal plants from Africa as a source of anti- tuberculosis agents. A good number of plant secondary metabolites are reported to have antitubercular activity comparable to the existing antitubercular drugs or sometimes even better. Information regarding the chemistry and pharmacology of plants leads to insight into their structure–activity relationship and potency. A well-defined strategy is required to exploit these phytomolecules as antitubercular drugs.

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  19. Proximate Analysis and Mineral Composition of Peels of Three Sweet Cassava Cultivars

    Monday Abel Otache et. al.

    ABSTRACT The nutrient yields from three different peels of sweet cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from three local government areas of Otukpo, Apa and Ushongo in Benue State were investigated. These cultivars include; TMS 98/0581, TMS 98/0505, and TMS 98/0524. The proximate analysis and mineral contents were determined according to the method of A.O.A.C. (1990) and triple acid digestion respectively.

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  20. Proximate and Mineral composition of leaves of Azadirachta indica

    Monday Abel Otache and Godwin Kparobo Agbajor

    Abstract Herbal consumption has been on the increase in recent time, growing concern in its usage with regards to safety in terms of its toxicity cannot be overemphasized. The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica) commonly known in Nigeria as ‘’Dogonyaro’’ were collected from three major locations in Otukpo Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria. The sites were designated the depicting code of O Mr (Market Road),O Ar (Adoka road) and O Ur (Upu Road).

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  21. PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF MATURE STEM BARK OF Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr.

    Ambrose Emuobonuvie Akpovona et. al.

    Abstract The proximate and phytochemical constituents of matured stem bark of Terminalia macroptera (TM) were investigated. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant’s stem bark were obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE) and analyzed using spectrophotometry and gravimetry methods. The results showed moisture (5.26 ± 0.11 %), ash (2.68 ± 0.06 %), fibre (6.67 ± 0.16 %), lipid (0.53 ± 0.01 %), protein (11.84 ± 0.45 %) and carbohydrate (73.01 ± 0.60 %) contents.

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  22. Quantitative Determination of Sugars in Three Varieties of Cassava Pulp

    Monday Abel Otache et. al.

    ABSTRACT Aims: Carbohydrate stands out among the various classes of food synthesized by plants. It has the highest proportion in cassava tuber which is a staple root crop in many developing countries, especially in West Africa. This research is aimed at determining the sugar contents in cassava tuber. In this examination, the sugar contents were further analyzed at the development phases of the tubers.

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  23. Recent advances in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie et. al.

    Abstract Molecular technologies offer the greatest potential for laboratories in resource-rich countries because they have the highest sensitivity and specificity. Continued use of new technologies will be crucial in elucidating the true epidemiology and pathogenesis of a disease, including the less well studied diseases. Continued development of affordable, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tools will be required for use in resource-poor settings, where the incidence of disease is highest.

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  24. TB/HIV/AIDS Infection Coping Strategies in Nigeria

    Anochie Philip Ifesinachi et. al.

    ABSTRACT Background: At least 7 out of every 10 persons living with Tuberculosis (TB) and Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection in Nigeria’s rural communities live below poverty level. Most suffer from malnutrition and die. What coping mechanisms must be designed for households, the primary care units, for the effective management of the pandemic.

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  25. The Hepato-Renal Effect of Graded Doses of a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide (Roundup) in Rat

    M. O. Alegun and M. A. Adiakpoh

    Abstract Roundup, one of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicides is classified as hazardous to the environment. Its low persistence leads to repeated applications and consequently, large portions contaminate soil and water bodies, causing harm to non-target species. The hepato-renal toxicity of graded doses (300, 400 and 600 mgKg-1body wt) of roundup on selected serum metabolites, enzymes and hematological parameters was investigated in rats (Wistar strain; 207g± 6 g).

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  26. The role of rotavirus associated with pediatric gastroenteritis in a general hospital in Lagos, Nigeria

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie et. al.

    Abstract Introduction: Bacterial, viral and parasitic agents have been implicated and confirmed as causative agents of gastroenteritis in children with ages below 5 years old. The major role of rotavirus as causative agent is not widely recognized within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. This study examined the role of rotavirus as a causative agent of childhood gastroenteritis in infants and young children below 5 years of age in a General Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

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  27. Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection in Rural Eastern Nigeria

    Anochie PI et. al.

    Abstract Background: HIV promotes progression of TB latent infection to active disease and the relapse of TB in previously treated patients. TB is the leading cause of death in HIV infected patients. Each disease speeds p the progress of the other. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence of the HIV infections, the presence of Mycobacteria species and their drug profile and susceptibility patterns.

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